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Atopic dermatitis (also known as AD), is the most common type of eczema, a skin condition that makes you itch and leaves red blotches, usually on your face, arms, and legs. Atopic dermatitis is a common and often persistent skin disease that affects a large percentage of the world's population. The rashes tend to flare and go away, but then come back again.

Atopic dermatitis typically begins in childhood, usually in the first six months of a baby’s life. Even though it is a common form of eczema, it may become severe and lifelong nuisance. Normally, AD disappears as a child grows older, but some adults could still suffer from AD flare ups.

“Atopic” refers to an allergy. Atopic dermatitis also usually exists alongside two other allergic conditions, which are asthma and hay fever (allergic rhinitis). People who have asthma, hay fever or have family members with AD are more likely to develop it.

Types of Atopic Dermatitis

Signs & Symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis (eczema) include:

How does Atopic Dermatitis happen and why?

There is no exact reason behind atopic dermatitis but research shows a combination of genetics and external factors that may be involved. A study published by Nature Genetics found that some people with eczema lack the proper proteins to build a strong barrier on the outer most layer of the skin (epidermis).

This group of people, especially those with atopic dermatitis may have partial or complete mutation on the gene responsible for creating a protein known as filaggrin. Filaggrin helps our bodies maintain a healthy, protective barrier on the epidermis.

Healthy Skin versus Atopic Dermatitis
Source: https://atopicdermatitis.net/skin-body-parts-affected/

This genetic mutation causes a lack of filaggrin in the epidermis layer which leads to a reduction in the ability to maintain the skin’s natural amount of water and thus results in dry skin which causes itchiness. Lack of filaggrin may also allow allergens to enter the skin which will then trigger an inflammatory response by the immune system, causing inflammation that again results in red, rash and itchy skin. This is the main reason why many people who suffer from atopic dermatitis tend to have extremely dry and infection-prone skin.

Healthy Skin versus Atopic Dermatitis
Source: https://atopicdermatitis.net/skin-body-parts-affected/

Statistics and Population

Atopic dermatitis (AD), affecting 2 to 3-fold in industrialized nations, impacting approximately 20% of children and 3% of adults worldwide.

Those who live in developed countries or colder climates seem to be more likely to develop AD.

Studies have found that 33% to 67% of children and young people with AD also have some food allergies. Moreover, general aspects of AD will affect between 8% to 18% of infants and young children.

Around 50% of people who suffer from atopic dermatitis develop symptoms within their first year of life, and probably as many as 95% experience an onset of AD when they are below five years of age. Around 75% of people with the childhood onset of the disease have seen their symptoms decrease before adolescence. The remaining 25% continue to have eczema during adulthood or may experience a relapse of symptoms after some years without experiencing any symptoms.

Around 50–75% of all children with early-onset atopic dermatitis are sensitive to allergens.

Examples of allergens include pets, house dust mites or even food allergens, whereas those with late-onset atopic dermatitis are often less sensitive to these allergens.

Atopic dermatitis is more than just a skin condition known as the “itch that rashes”. It is a disease caused by an overactive immune system that leads to inflammation in the body. It is also the main culprit behind internal inflammation that causes the symptoms to flare up. Besides that, scratching may lead to only temporary relief and may worsen the itching in the long run. This is called the itch-scratch cycle.

In healthy skin, the outer layer (epidermis) keeps foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses and allergens from entering the body. When you have atopic dermatitis, the outer layer of the skin is weaker and is more vulnerable to inflammation as a result of immune cells in the body. The damage done by scratching also contributes to the breakdown of skin cells which makes it easier for foreign substances to enter the body.

Once these foreign substances have broken through the skin barrier, immune cells alert the body that it is under attack. These immune cells travel to the lymph nodes at the dermis called as the second layer of the skin. Once they have entered the lymph nodes, these immune cells activate your body’s protectors, called T helper cells.

The immune cells release substances which cause redness and rashes on the skin. This will cause the inflammatory process to continue, so the skin reacts even when it looks clear. Even when the rash cannot be seen clearly, the underlying inflammation is still active beneath the skin. People tend to scratch when they feel itchy, and this further weakens the skin cells in the epidermis which allow more foreign substances to get in and this ultimately would increase the risk of infection.

Connection between Atopic Dermatitis & Respiratory System

Studies have shown that almost 50% - 70% of children and 7% - 9% of adults with severe atopic dermatitis will develop asthma.

Doctors and scientist came up with theories as to why a skin rash is associated with asthma. Does immune system disorders cause an overreaction to allergens that are in contact with the skin and lung airways or is it the defective skin and airways that trigger an excessive immune response?

A research by Dr. Kopan suggested that the problems started with the damaged or defective skin itself. The researchers found that cells in the damaged skin can secrete thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), a compound that is able to cause an immune response and due to the skin’s effectiveness in secreting TSLP into the blood system, the substance travels throughout our body, causing AD flares up. When it reaches our lungs, it then triggers the hypersensitive characteristics of respiratory problems which could lead to asthma attacks.

Let us learn more about what causes atopic dermatitis or flare-ups/ triggers, our Skin and more on how to reduce the effects of Atopic Dermatitis in our next Blog.

Learn more how Hi-Bliss Hydrogen Therapy can help you manage your Skin Condition here : https://hi-bliss.com/skin-eyecare-programs/

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Your skin might be fine for a long time. But then something happens to cause a rash or itchiness. Some things that trigger atopic dermatitis or make it worse include:

Natural remedies to ease your Atopic Dermatitis Flare-Ups/ Triggers

Though there is no known cure for Atopic Dermatitis, Eczema, these are a few natural remedies to help you ease and manage your AD flare-ups.

How Hydrogen Therapy Helps Atopic Dermatitis Condition

Hydrogen is the first component of the periodic table. The most important function of hydrogen in the human body is to keep you hydrated. Water is made up of hydrogen and oxygen and is absorbed by the cells of the body.

Hydrogen contains dissolved molecular hydrogen, which can ease oxidative stress and has shown therapeutic effects in several pathological conditions, including AD. It is an element which is present in all the fluids of the human body which allows the toxins and waste to be transported and eliminated properly. Hydrogen has also been reported to increase glutathione peroxidase activity, downregulate thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC).

These are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD and used as an indicator of disease severity. Thymus and activation-regulated chemokine binds to the chemokine receptor CCR4 and induces chemotaxis in T cells, therefore acting as a proinflammatory factor in AD. It has been suggested that H2 may have therapeutic potential in AD by reducing TARC.

In conclusion, hydrogen is a safe and effective medical gas that has been proven to be able to treat and control various diseases. It can suppress the levels of inflammation related mediators such as Th1, Th2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines which are the main cause in the development of diseases such as atopic dermatitis in the human body. In conclusion, Hydrogen has cemented its place as an alternative preventive treatment for AD that is also beneficial to the human body.

Functions Of The Skin

The SKIN is the largest and fastest-growing organ in the body. It has several important functions such as:

The skin is made up of several layers, which protect the body from pressure, temperature, micro-organisms, radiation and chemicals.

Functions Of The Skin

The liver is the only organ in our body that can repair itself. It has a variety of functions like the ability to break down toxins, deactivate hormones, filter waste products to the bowels & kidneys, and to store nutrients such as vitamins A, D and B12. Due to this, the digestive and elimination systems which include the skin and kidneys may be affected by a sluggish liver.

When the liver is exhausted, it is unable to eliminate toxins. Other organs such as the kidneys and skin are forced to replace its role to eliminate toxins and wastes out from the body via the epidermis. This can disrupt the skin, especially if it is already sensitive or is inflicted with eczema. These toxins can easily cause irritation, itchiness and even a dreaded flare-up.

Hi-Bliss Hydrogen Therapy: Treatment Case Study

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